A discussion of my arguments with a friend over the existence of god

For instance, "more than half of this planet is covered by water" is a contingent truth, that relies upon which planet "this planet" is. For additional perspective, the reader could consider the discussion in Legal theory contexts.

The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in rival secular explanations as well. Skepticism In all of the above discussions on epistemological topics, Hume performs a balancing act between making skeptical attacks step 1 and offering positive theories based on natural beliefs step 2.

General Discussion (15)

Responses to the objections of Wielenberg, Morriston, and others have also been given see EvansBaggett and Walls, September 2, at 9: This is the question that Mark Linville— pursues in the second moral argument he develops.

How to Read Hume But this people has a stubborn and rebellious heart; They have turned aside and departed. It would seem that the great difference of opinion was not concerning the existence of purgatory but concerning the nature of purgatorial fire; still St.

His work shows "early signs of contact and contrast between the pagan and the Judaeo-Christian tradition of creation", criticizing the account found in the Bible. Norton, David Fate; Taylor, Jacqueline. Therefore, in order for objects to remain in existence, God must exist omnipresently.

So Kant concludes on this basis that the understanding is the true law-giver of nature. Suppose, for example, that I paint a picture, which gives me a feeling of pleasure.


He asserts that "Generally, in the biblical texts the existence of God is taken for granted. September 2, at From a theistic perspective to think that God and science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the relationship between God and the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world.

The debate is rather a debate about the character of the universe. But for Kant sensibility is our passive or receptive capacity to be affected by objects that are independent of us 2: A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the question of where the burden of proof lies with respect to theistic arguments.

However, the fact that we humans are aware of moral facts is itself surprising and calls for an explanation. However, this is far from obviously true; in fact, if theism is true it is clearly false.

His philosophical writings were among the most controversial pieces of literature of the time, and would have been impossible to publish if Britain was not a friend to liberty.

A statement that is true in some world not necessarily our own is called a possible truth. I better go back and check. If B were to occur before A, then it would be absurd to say that A was the cause of B.

Enquiries Oxford, ed. But this is a morally legitimate goal in itself. On the realist version, nature itself is law-governed and we become self-conscious by attending to its law-governed regularities, which also makes this an empiricist view of self-consciousness.

He dramatically makes this point at the conclusion of his Enquiry: On the tombs of the early Christians nothing is more common than a prayer or a supplication asking the departed to intercede with God for surviving friends, but these inscriptions seem always to suppose that the departed one is already with God.

Hume argues that some virtuous character traits are instinctive or natural, such as benevolence, and others are acquired or artificial, such as justice. So the sensible world and its phenomena are not entirely independent of the human mind, which contributes its basic structure.

Linville objects that it is not clear how the feelings of such an observer could constitute the intrinsic worth of a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and mind-independent.

Yet because I cannot stop with these intuitions, if they are to become cognitions, but must refer them as representations to something as their object and determine this object through them, I can assume either that the concepts through which I bring about this determination also conform to the objects, and then I am once again in the same difficulty about how I could know anything about them a priori, or else I assume that the objects, or what is the same thing, the experience in which alone they can be cognized as given objects conforms to those concepts, in which case I immediately see an easier way out of the difficulty, since experience itself is a kind of cognition requiring the understanding, whose rule I have to presuppose in myself before any object is given to me, hence a priori, which rule is expressed in concepts a priori, to which all objects of experience must therefore necessarily conform, and with which they must agree.

But Kant was also exposed to a range of German and British critics of Wolff, and there were strong doses of Aristotelianism and Pietism represented in the philosophy faculty as well.

But he stiffened his neck and hardened his heart against turning to the Lord God of Israel. The transcendental deduction of all a priori concepts therefore has a principle toward which the entire investigation must be directed, namely this: This was published anonymously in three volumes: Therefore, some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.

This was presented as a dialogue between Hume and "a friend who loves sceptical paradoxes", where the friend gives a version of the argument by saying of its proponents, they "paint in the most magnificent colours the order, beauty, and wise arrangement of the universe; and then ask if such a glorious display of intelligence could come from a random coming together of atoms, or if chance could produce something that the greatest genius can never sufficiently admire.

This most elegant system of the sun, planets, and comets could not have arisen without the design and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being. While he was celebrating Mass, he experienced an unusually long ecstasy.

It is the common teaching of Catholic theologians that indulgences may be applied to the souls detained in purgatory; and that indulgences are available for them "by way of suffrage" per modum suffragii. ar·gu·ment (är′gyə-mənt) n. 1. a. A discussion in which the parties involved express disagreement with one another; a debate: philosophical arguments over the nature of existence.


Thomas Aquinas

An angry discussion involving disagreement among the participants; a quarrel: The roommates had an argument about whose turn it was to wash the dishes. c. Archaic A.

Immanuel Kant

The design argument does not prove the existence of God in the way we conceive him: all-knowing, all-powerful, and entirely beneficent.

The existence of evil, Hume holds, proves that if God exists, God cannot fit these criteria. David Hume (—) “Hume is our Politics, Hume is our Trade, Hume is our Philosophy, Hume is our Religion.” This statement by nineteenth century philosopher James Hutchison Stirling reflects the unique position in intellectual thought held by Scottish philosopher David Hume.

Part of Hume’s fame and importance owes to his.

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David Hume (1711—1776) A discussion of my arguments with a friend over the existence of god
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